October 2017 (19:1)

Issue PDF archive: PDF icon mpa160.pdf

The concept of effectiveness comes up often in the MPA field:

  • Aichi Target 11 calls for 10% of nations’ waters to be in effectively managed MPAs or other effective area-based conservation measures by 2020
  • The IUCN Green List recognizes protected areas that meet its standards for effectiveness
  • High-profile studies (like this and this) have identified factors that correlate with MPA effectiveness, while noting that few MPAs possess all these factors

The most basic gauge of MPA effectiveness is pretty simple: Is a site achieving its stated goals or not? But even if we assume that most MPA goals, if met, would produce positive outcomes, it still begs the question of how practitioners should best plan and manage MPAs to meet their goals.

That’s a big question. How do we get MPAs to achieve what we want them to achieve? Answering it could end up incorporating every management challenge there is, from site selection to governance to monitoring and everything in between.

For this reason, “effective” may be the most critical word in global MPA targets. In fact it may be as hard, or harder, to meet than the targets’ numerical coverage goals.

With this in mind – and inspired by the recent ICES Journal of Marine Science feature on MPA effectiveness (see box, “Debating the effectiveness of MPAs”) – we reached out to MPA practitioners with a question:

What is the biggest challenge that the global MPA community faces in achieving effectiveness?

Then we asked for their thoughts on meeting that challenge. Their responses are below.

This article is not expected or intended to solve the challenges of MPA effectiveness, as those are likely to remain for as long as MPAs are a management tool. But it provides some useful perspectives on where the main challenges lie.

Biggest challenge is the culture and commitment of management organizations

By Marc Hockings

Marc is an emeritus professor in the School of Earth and Environmental Sciences at The University of Queensland, and vice-chair (Science and Management) for IUCN’s World Commission on Protected Areas. He is also managing editor of PARKS: The International Journal of Protected Areas and Conservation. Email: m.hockings [at] uq.edu.au

I think the biggest challenge is one of culture and commitment. By culture, I mean having an approach to management – within the organization responsible for managing the MPA – that is open to reflection, and that embraces honest assessment of performance as a basis for improvement. Such assessment can be either self-assessment or from outside. This culture needs to extend throughout the organization from the senior leadership to the field managers. It also needs an environment where it is “safe” to recognize shortcomings, understanding that this recognition is the first step towards improvement. This can be difficult in a political and cultural environment that sees such an admission as failure and as something to be avoided at all costs.

By commitment, I mean the determination to make this approach of reflective evaluation a central core of management. In doing so, the necessary attention is given to monitoring in order to provide the evidence base for evaluating effectiveness. Then that assessment must be integrated into planning, decision-making, and resource allocation.

The challenge initially needs to be led from the top. The clear and public commitment of the Chief Executive of the managing organization is critical to building the culture of the organization. Secondly, focus on what is doable! When starting a program of management effectiveness evaluation, there can be a temptation to monitor and assess everything – but such programs often collapse under their own weight.

Missing piece is often knowledge of pressures

By Janica Borg

Janica is a marine conservation officer with WWF Finland, and has a background working with the Baltic Sea MPA network at HELCOM, the regional seas convention for the Baltic Sea. She is currently conducting a study on MPA efficiency in the Baltic Sea region. Email: janica.borg [at] wwf.fi

MPA efficiency – the focus of a pilot study I’m conducting at WWF on MPAs in the Baltic Sea region – looks at whether the correct regulations are in place within an MPA. (In this context, MPA effectiveness is a broader term that also includes aspects such as a site’s age, legal status, and financing. I use efficiency to talk about a narrower concept that addresses three building blocks – MPA protection aims, regulations, and pressures.) The correct regulations for an MPA depend on what the site aims to protect, but also on the local pressures acting on the MPA. For example, an MPA protecting a bottom-dwelling fish species and its habitats in an area with intensive leisure boating should have regulations on anchoring and other bottom-disturbing human activities.

Usually the biggest challenge is the lack of detailed knowledge of the existing pressures. Logically, the features the MPA aims to protect are known already when the MPA is established. However, many MPAs have been established without thorough knowledge about the existing pressures in the area. This includes not only pressures within the MPA but also pressures outside its borders, which can hamper the protection efforts inside the MPA. In addition, past pressures – for which the source already has been eliminated – can still have a large effect on the ecosystem. This is the case in many areas of the Baltic Sea, where nutrient flow from land runoff has been significantly reduced, but the circulation of the nutrients already accumulated in the marine system still causes eutrophication many years later.

Political will is a rare and precious commodity

By Angelique Songco

Angelique is manager of Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park, a UNESCO World Heritage site in the Philippines. In September 2017, the MPA was awarded Platinum Status in the Global Ocean Refuge System, coordinated by the Marine Conservation Institute. Email: tmo [at] tubbatahareefs.org

The biggest challenge in our part of the world is getting decision-makers, policy-makers, and government leaders on board enough for them to positively influence the outcomes of MPA management efforts. Political will is a precious commodity, made even more so by its rarity. With political will, the funds to manage one’s MPA are assured, and the support needed to try out new solutions is in place.  

As practitioners we need to seriously consider ways of inspiring support from the people who hold the purse strings and the influence to make a difference. Often they are not interested – or they are too distracted – to learn more about the value of our sites. New ways of reaching out, and getting our message across to people who are alien to our cause, need to be found.

Most difficult challenge is coordination among institutions

By Sandra Bessudo

Sandra is a marine biologist and founder of the Malpelo Foundation, which manages the Malpelo Fauna and Flora Sanctuary of Colombia. She also previously served as Environment Minister for Colombia. Email: sbessudo [at] fundacionmalpelo.org

For me the most difficult challenge that MPAs face is coordination among the different institutions and actors. This is not only the case for a particular marine area but also between different networks of MPAs – allowing the connectivity of ecosystems and species, especially when the species are migratory.

For marine conservation to be effective, MPAs must have societal and community support

By Nathan J. Bennett

Nathan is a postdoctoral fellow with the OceanCanada Partnership in the Institute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability at the University of British Columbia, and an affiliate researcher of the Center for Ocean Solutions at Stanford University. He recently was the lead author on a paper titled “An appeal for a code of conduct for marine conservation”. Website: http://nathanbennett.ca; Email: nathan.bennett [at] ubc.ca

One of the biggest challenges faced by the global MPA community is social license. By this I mean that for marine conservation efforts to be successful and effective, they need to have societal and community support prior to implementation and during ongoing management.

Broad societal support and advocacy for MPAs is needed to drive political will and motivate governments to adequately support marine protected area management. Research has shown that adequate long-term financial support is necessary for effective MPA management.

Also, when the needs, rights, and voices of local people are not taken into account during the creation and ongoing management of MPAs, this can lead to local opposition and backlash. Otherwise for coastal communities, small-scale fishers, and small island developing states (SIDS) that already face an array of pressures, MPAs can be perceived as yet another injustice in a sea of injustices.

There are two actions that can help to increase social license for MPAs. First, ongoing investment in efforts to educate the public and local communities about MPAs is needed. The public needs to understand the answers to such basic questions as: What are marine protected areas? What are their potential benefits and drawbacks? How do MPAs fit in with other marine management and conservation actions and approaches? Politicians and policy makers also need to have a clear rationale for creating MPAs.

Second, to overcome opposition and engender local support, the human dimensions of the different contexts where conservation occurs need to be taken into account. This needs to occur during the planning of MPA networks, in the set-up of governance structures, and when management decisions are made. But local people should not be included in a token manner. Engagement needs to be thorough and genuine. Employing the conservation social sciences is one rigorous and transparent way that economic, social, cultural, and political considerations can be included in planning and management for small coastal MPAs and even large-scale MPAs. The actions of marine conservation organizations might also be guided by a code of conduct to ensure fair, just, and accountable marine conservation actions.

Debating the effectiveness of MPAs

An August 2017 special feature in the ICES Journal of Marine Science provides a series of debates on the effectiveness of MPAs in achieving ecological and societal objectives. With viewpoints from practitioners and researchers, the debates start with each author defining the term effectiveness then discussing the degree to which they feel MPAs have generally achieved it. The special feature is free of charge to view: click on the link above then click “PDF”.

If you would like to comment on the debates, MPA News has set up a discussion page here. We have already received a few posts, including one stressing the link between site effectiveness and effective enforcement, and one comparing how effectiveness is addressed in terrestrial vs. marine protected areas.

Join the WCPA-Marine task force on management effectiveness

Any readers who are particularly interested in MPA effectiveness should consider joining the World Commission on Protected Areas task force on the Green List and MPA management effectiveness. The task force aims to ensure that MPAs are embedded in the development of IUCN’s Green List of Protected and Conserved Areas, and that MPAs are helped and encouraged to meet the Aichi Target 11 requirement for effective management.

Other effective area-based conservation measures

The phrase other effective area-based conservation measures (OECMs) in Aichi Target 11 has been a focus of attention and questions from when the target was agreed upon in 2010. What exactly do “other effective” measures include, and how will they impact how countries tally their progress toward the coverage target?

A special IUCN task force on OECMs has been working to define the term, and anticipates finalizing guidance on it in 2018. In the meantime, the task force has published a journal article that outlines its progress so far, including examples of areas likely to qualify or not. The article is available for free.

Conservation effectiveness

Conservation efforts focus too much on activities that are politically pragmatic – like designating MPAs in places with few threats in order to meet percentage-based targets – instead of on whether conservation efforts are actually making a positive difference for the environment, according to a new study. “Measuring conservation progress in km2 is equivalent to measuring progress in health care by the number of patients treated, even though most of the treated people were healthy (because they were cheaper to treat) and most of the people needing treatment went without,” states the paper. It also notes that few studies have tested the link between protected area management effectiveness and real conservation impact.

The paper “From displacement activities to evidence-informed decisions in conservation” is available for free here. Bob Pressey of James Cook University is the lead author.

From 4-8 September, MPA News attended the Fourth International Marine Protected Areas Congress (IMPAC4) in the beautiful beachfront town of La Serena, Chile. In all there were 1100 attendees from 59 countries – a good turnout.

The highlights of the conference, providing the main news and outcomes from the week, are below. If we have missed anything, please let us know at mpanews [at] u.washington.edu and we will add it. Thanks! (And if you'd like a more detailed, blow-by-blow account of the conference, please see our live-blog of it.)

MPA announcements

  • Three new Chilean MPAs: On opening night of IMPAC4, the Chilean government announced the official designation of three MPAs – Rapa Nui, also known as Easter Island (740,000km2); Juan Fernández Archipelago (480,000km2); and Cabo de Hornos (147,000km2). Details on the Rapa Nui MPA were the first to emerge: the MPA bans industrial fishing and mining, but traditional artisanal fishing by the Rapa Nui community will continue. The marine park’s creation was enabled by a 73% vote in favor from the Rapa Nui community in a 3 September referendum, following five years of consultations. For more information, click here and here.
  • No mining in penguin reserve: The week before IMPAC4, the Chilean government decided to halt development of a major mining project near the Las Damas Reserve, a penguin MPA near La Serena. The decision was relatively controversial in Chile, where the mine developers had promised the creation of thousands of jobs.
  • GLORES program announces first three platinum-level sites: At IMPAC4, the Global Ocean Refuge System (GLORES), managed by the Marine Conservation Institute, announced its first Global Ocean Refuges: Papahānaumokuākea Marine National MonumentMalpelo Fauna and Flora Sanctuary, and Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park.

Joint actions

  • Call to Action for the Oceans: IMPAC4 culminated in a one-day high-level meeting attended by Chilean President Michelle Bachelet and other international and national leaders. The leaders endorsed a "Call to Action for the Oceans", which calls on nations to unite in favor of ocean protection and sustainable marine use. The official IMPAC4 announcement of the Call to Action is here.
  • Transatlantic MPA Network: An initiative to link existing networks of MPA managers in the Atlantic region was highlighted at IMPAC4. In development since late 2016, the network aims to transfer knowledge between sites that face shared challenges and wildlife. The project is funded by the European Commission. For more information, click here.

New websites, publications, videos

  • New website for global MPA database: The UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre and IUCN released the latest online version of its MPA database: marine.protectedplanet.net. The new site is much more interactive than the previous one. As of early September, the global MPA count was 15,271 MPAs covering 6.35% of the world ocean.
  • Website for proposed MPA classification system: In 2016 a joint team of Portuguese and French researchers proposed a new system for classifying MPAs based on what activities the sites allow and how those activities could impact biodiversity. The project now has a website that allows practitioners to generate a classification for their sites within minutes, following a brief series of questions.
  • Report: Large-Scale Marine Protected Areas: Guidelines for design and management (IUCN)
  • Journal issue: A special issue of the journal Aquatic Conservation was published at IMPAC4. It highlights key MPA-themed lessons from the 2016 World Parks Congress in Honolulu, Hawai'i, including on MPA management, financing, blue carbon, and more.
  • Journal issue: The latest issue of Antarctic Affairs journal (July 2017) contains six articles on Antarctic MPA projects, including for the Ross Sea, Eastern Antarctica, Weddell Sea, and the Western Antarctic Peninsula.
  • New video by young professionals: The Young Professionals network of the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas released a video titled “Making Waves” with lessons and inspiration gathered from IMPAC4.
  • New video on high seas conservation: IUCN released a new video, “The Last Frontier”, on high seas conservation, including a call for increased science and better governance for international waters.


  • Keobel Sakuma wins Kenton Miller award: IUCN awarded Keobel Sakuma of Palau with the Kenton Miller Award for innovation in protected areas. Keobel and his team have been responsible for planning and managing the MPA that now covers Palau’s entire marine area. For more information, click here.


Commitments from the ‘Our Ocean’ conference, held in Malta in October

The annual Our Ocean conference aims to drive nations, NGOs, and others to make commitments to foster more sustainable ocean management, including through the designation of new MPAs. The latest conference – held in Malta from 5-6 October and hosted by the EU – was no exception.

For a full list of commitments made at the latest Our Ocean conference, click here. Here were some of the MPA-related highlights:

  • The South Pacific island nation of Niue announced that over the next three years 40% of its EEZ, equal to 127,000 km2, will be designated as an MPA.
  • Colombia announced the expansion of the Malpelo Fauna and Flora Sanctuary, increasing its area from 9500 to 26,670 km2.
  • Mexico announced its intent to expand Revillagigedo National Park, a no-take MPA and World Heritage site, to 140,000 km2. It will be the largest MPA in waters of continental North America.
  • The MAVA Foundation announced a €27-million (US $32-million) commitment to promote MPAs as a tool for protecting marine species, habitats, and fish resources, mainly in the Mediterranean Basin and in West Africa.

The next Our Ocean conferences will be held in Indonesia in 2018, in Norway in 2019, and in Palau in 2020.

In Chile in September at the Fourth International MPA Congress, there was a side event on satellite-based surveillance of illegal fisheries. It was unique in that there were several Chilean naval officers in uniform in the audience. And the first speaker offered what was perhaps the most memorable line of the conference: “Are we at a point where we may finally put the ‘P’ in MPA?”

The event was hosted by OceanMind, a UK-based organization working to increase the sustainability of fisheries worldwide through insights into vessel compliance. (OceanMind is part of the Satellite Applications Catapult, a UK government initiative to develop new applications for satellite technology.) By drawing from a multitude of data sources, OceanMind helps governments determine where fishing is occurring in their waters, and advises major fish buyers on which catches were legal and which ones likely were not. Chilean naval officers were at the side event because OceanMind worked with them to analyze compliance in Chile’s MPAs.

MPA News reported on OceanMind last year when it was called Project Eyes on the Seas. That article discussed the state of the art at the time in satellite-based efforts to address illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing, including in MPAs. Since then, OceanMind and another main player in global fisheries awareness – Global Fishing Watch – have each applied their tools and expertise with more governments.*

Updates on OceanMind and Global Fishing Watch

Although Global Fishing Watch and OceanMind both use high-tech tools to track global fisheries compliance, there are distinctions between the two. Here is a brief primer, including how each has progressed in the past year:

Global Fishing Watch

  • Primarily AIS-sourced data: Global Fishing Watch started as an initiative to put a global map of fishing vessel activity on the web in near real time. Originally a partnership of Google, SkyTruth, and Oceana, Global Fishing Watch is now an independent NGO that processes data from vessels’ on-board Automatic Identification Systems (AIS), which identify each vessel and its position. A limitation of this approach is that vessels are able to turn off their AISs or hack them to show a different location, and any operator intent on fishing in a closed area would be incentivized to do that. However, Global Fishing Watch can detect such actions and highlight the behavior to appropriate authorities having noted when and where AISs have been turned off or obviously mis-located, and flagging those vessels for further analysis. GFW has begun incorporating other data sources, including data from Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS): Indonesia released its VMS to be publicly visible in June 2017, and Peru signed an MoU in September to do the same.
  • A crowdsourced approach: By putting fishing vessel locations on the web in near real time, and with free access, the fundamental concept of GFW is to crowdsource the observation of fishing vessel compliance. Ultimately GFW is driven to significantly improve transparency: this will drive self-correcting behavior and make those that do not comply stand out from those that do (e.g., upon return to port, a vessel that entered an MPA after taking itself off of AIS or VMS will be seen to have not complied, and can expect enhanced inspections.) GFW is now also partnering directly with governments, including Indonesia, Peru, and Kiribati, to apply its systems and the governments’ data to fisheries compliance in their national waters, including inside MPAs.


  • Cumulative approach to data: OceanMind sources data from an array of sources – vessels’ AIS and VMS, multiple satellite types (synthetic aperture radar, optical imaging, thermal imaging, visible infrared imaging), radio frequency detection, underwater acoustic sampling, and others. OceanMind then links these data to vessel registries and histories to identify which vessels were fishing where. Although each data source has its unique limitations (like the AIS limitations described above), OceanMind’s strategy is to balance those limitations with the strengths of other sources.
  • Hands-on approach: Rather than crowdsourcing fisheries awareness, OceanMind has a team of analysts who work directly with governments and the private sector, advising them on how to apply multiple data sources to analyze fishing activity and the supply chain. Currently OceanMind is partnering on compliance projects with the governments of Chile, Costa Rica, Thailand, and the UK, as well as the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission and the Seafood Task Force, an industry group of the world’s largest fish retailers and processors.

Incidentally, both OceanMind and GFW contributed analyses to the investigation of a Chinese vessel that was caught in the Galápagos Marine Reserve in August 2017, containing thousands of illegally caught sharks in its hold. For OceanMind’s analysis click here. For GFW’s analysis click here.

Do you want OceanMind’s help with compliance in your MPA?

OceanMind is already partnering with governments and organizations worldwide that are interested in monitoring assistance for their MPAs and fisheries compliance verification. The only requirements needed are available data sources to track vessels in the protected area (such as AIS, VMS, coastal radar, or other tracking systems), and that there is funding available to pay for OceanMind’s costs.

“If there are tracking units on the vessels nearby [including vessels the size of pangas or lanchas], or if the threat is from a larger class of vessel, we’d be happy to talk with anybody who is interested from an MPA perspective,” says Brad Soule, Chief Fisheries Analyst for OceanMind.

In terms of costs, the main one is for OceanMind analysts’ time. Funding to this point has come from partners or direct customers, or from philanthropies, NGOs, or academic institutions that are supporting the various projects.

In cases where an MPA has a one-off question about, for example, what the best tracking system would be for their purposes, OceanMind is open to providing that guidance free of charge. “We’ll always do our best to help people out,” says Soule.

To contact OceanMind about compliance assistance, email Brad Soule at Brad.Soule [at] sa.catapult.org.uk

* Editor’s note: This article features Global Fishing Watch, which is a not-for-profit organization, and OceanMind, which is in the process of becoming a not-for-profit organization. However, there are also commercial companies that are applying satellite-based analyses to fishing compliance worldwide, and which would be of similar use to MPAs. These include DigitalGlobe (mentioned in an MPA News article last year) and Kongsberg Satellite Services, which is 75% owned by the Norwegian government. MPA News will report on such commercial services in upcoming issues.

New ideas on how the social sciences could change ocean conservation

The current issue of Marine Ecosystems and Management, the sister newsletter of MPA News, features an article titled “New ideas on how the social sciences could change the way we do ocean conservation and management – and already are”. The article highlights ideas from 17 social science and interdisciplinary researchers worldwide.

Potential reopening of three large no-take MPAs in US to commercial fishing

In mid-September, a private memo from US Secretary of the Interior Ryan Zinke to President Donald Trump was leaked to the Washington Post. In the memo, Zinke recommended reopening three large no-take MPAs to commercial fishing: the 12,720-km2 Northeast Canyons and Seamounts Marine National Monument, the 490,000-km2 Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument, and the 34,000-km2 Rose Atoll Marine National Monument. In addition, Zinke suggested revising (i.e., shrinking) the boundaries of the latter two MPAs. The Washington Post's article on Zinke's recommendation is available here, and the text of Zinke’s memo is here.

Science magazine published an article with reactions from the MPA science community to Zinke's recommendations. The recommendations are the result of a review that Trump ordered earlier this year of protected areas designated since 1996 under the US Antiquities Act.

Co-management coming for marine area off Atlantic Canada

The government of Canada and the indigenous government of Nunatsiavut have signed a statement of intent to co-develop a management plan, including MPAs, for a 380,000-km2 marine area off northern Labrador, on Canada’s Atlantic coast. The governments will then manage the area collaboratively. The management plan is expected to be finalized in about 18 months.

Want to conduct research in Papahānaumokuākea? Want $900,000 to do it?

The National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (NFWF) is requesting proposals to conduct a research cruise in Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument in the summer of 2018. The winning proposal will be awarded up to US $900,000. Applicants should feature a collaborative team to conduct research that addresses priority management needs for the MPA. More details are in the formal request for proposals. Please note that pre-proposals are due by 26 October 2017.

MedPAN releases two calls for small projects

MedPAN, the network of MPA managers in the Mediterranean, has released two calls for small projects that reinforce MPA management in the region. One is open to five countries (Algeria, Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco, and Tunisia), focuses on financing and communications, and has an application deadline of 19 November 2017 – rules and details are here. The other call has a broader geographic and subject focus, and an application deadline of 7 January 2018 – rules and details are here.

New tool helps MPA managers do rapid assessments of climate change impacts

A new tool is available to help North American MPA managers assess the implications of climate change for their sites and develop adaptation strategies. The North American Marine Protected Area Rapid Vulnerability Assessment Tool takes just two days to perform. It contains a user guide, a set of blank worksheets, and a booklet containing examples of completed worksheets. The tool was produced by the Commission on Environmental Cooperation, a tri-national government organization through which the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the US collaborate to protect North America’s environment.

New guidance on assessing coherence of MPA networks

The European Topic Centre on Inland, Coastal and Marine Waters has released a new technical report on assessing the coherence of MPA networks. To identify a method suitable across the 23 EU Member States with marine waters, the Centre compared approaches applied by the EU’s four Regional Seas Conventions. This resulted in a tiered approach that is applicable across all waters, even in areas with relatively poor data availability. The report “Assessing Europe’s Marine Protected Area networks - Proposed methodologies and scenarios” is available here.

Key MPA lessons from the World Parks Congress

As indicated in this issue’s highlights from IMPAC4, a special issue of the journal Aquatic Conservation is now available, highlighting key MPA-themed lessons from the 2016 World Parks Congress in Honolulu, Hawai'i, including on MPA management, financing, blue carbon, and more.

2018 is International Year of the Reef

Next year has been designated as the Third International Year of the Reef 2018 (IYOR 2018) by the International Coral Reef Initiative. The designation provides an opportunity to build the public attention needed to initiate fundamental policy and behavioral changes required to save coral reef ecosystems. IYOR 2018 will be a year-long, worldwide campaign to raise awareness of the value and importance of coral reefs and threats to their sustainability, and to motivate governments, communities, and individuals to act to protect them.

Activities will range from science workshops and report publications to beach cleanups and art exhibits. IYOR activities in each region and country are decided upon and organized at national and local levels. All individuals, governments, corporations, schools, and organizations are actively encouraged to participate. The Twitter account is @IYOR2018.

From the MPA News vault: Features and news items from yesteryear

Five years ago: September-October 2012

  • Cook Islands and New Caledonia Declare Intent to Designate Large Multi-Use MPAs
  • Letter to the Editor: MPA Community Continues to Reinvent Tools Rather than Seek Consistency

Ten years ago: October 2007

  • Coral Species Added to IUCN Red List for First Time: What Does This Mean for MPAs?
  • MPA Perspective: Defining Conservation in the Marine Realm, Including What Is (or Is Not) an MPA

Fifteen years ago: October 2002

  • Measuring the Effects of Marine Reserves on Fisheries: The Dilemmas of Experimental Programs
  • Australia Designates World's Largest No-Take Area [Editor’s note: this was the 65,000-km2 Heard Island and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve]

For these and all other issues of MPA News, go to https://mpanews.openchannels.org/mpanews/archives