January - March 2021 (22:4)

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Dozens of nations have already committed to protecting 30% of their waters by 2030. The UN Convention on Biological Diversity is expected to adopt that same target later this year. With current MPA coverage at 7.65% of the world ocean, a global 30x30 goal would require quadrupling MPA coverage in the next 10 years.

Where will the funding come from for all these new MPAs? MPA finance is already in need of improvement, with many of today’s MPAs suffering from inadequate budget support and income. Improving the financial picture may not be easy. The jargon and tools of the financial sector amount to a foreign language to many MPA managers.

MPA News spoke about these challenges with Amílcar Guzmán Valladares and Viviana Luján Gallegos of Wolfs Company, based in The Netherlands and Bonaire. Guzmán and Luján have worked with dozens of MPAs in Latin America and the Caribbean to develop business plans and financing mechanisms. They also co-authored a report last year analyzing the use of conservation trust funds worldwide, including to finance MPAs.

Based on their experience, Guzmán and Luján believe there is reason for optimism about the future of MPA finance. They jointly answered the following questions via email.

MPA News: How would you describe the current state of MPA finance?

Amílcar Guzmán Valladares and Viviana Luján Gallegos: MPAs around the world are generally under-financed. Most are reliant on government funding, which can fluctuate a lot. In addition, many are either restricted from generating other forms of financing, or any revenues they generate must go to the government’s central budget, not the MPA itself.

With limited resources, MPAs often lack properly trained financial or communications personnel. As a result, there is often insufficient capacity to absorb funds, to monitor financial performance, or to communicate conservation impacts. These are all fundamental conditions for being able to raise additional funds.

MPAs that rely on government budgets, for example, must be able to communicate their financing needs and conservation impacts effectively. Otherwise, the government’s decision-makers – who are dealing with other pressing national priorities, and who may lack awareness of the benefits MPAs provide to the national economy – will allocate funds elsewhere.

MPA News: The UN Convention on Biological Diversity is expected this year to adopt the 30x30 target. With so many existing MPAs under-financed, where will the funding for these future MPAs come from?

Guzmán and Luján: Of course, there is no single source or solution to fund the creation and effective management of these MPAs.

Our experience working with MPAs suggests that new areas under protection will require diversified funding options, which may range from international cooperation to regional, national, and local finance streams. Specific financing mechanisms will most likely continue to be context-specific. This is because the main opportunities for funding often depend on, and are limited to, the national policy framework, ecological assets of the MPAs, MPA governance, and/or the availability and willingness of possible partners. Although there has been a tendency to look into innovative approaches as the ultimate financing solution, these are not suitable to every MPA site.

A more vital need, first, will be to focus on the basics of MPA governance and the fundamental challenges that existing MPAs need to overcome. These include challenges to access funding that should be easily available. For example, we have been approached a number of times by donors that have set aside funds for protected areas, but the donors can’t allocate those funds. This is because the MPA management entities lack the capacity to absorb the money, or to report back on their strategic planning, budget management, and results.

In some of these cases, our solution has been as simple as helping site managers to compile a sound budget that they can present to their donors. Once these capacities are in place, managers of new or existing MPAs can more plausibly start thinking about strengthening or diversifying finance streams.

MPA News: Assuming those capacities are built, how optimistic are you about the future of MPA finance?

Guzmán and Luján: We are optimistic. There is increasing visibility and awareness of marine degradation. That has translated into growing interest and commitments to implement mechanisms that generate longer-term funding to MPAs, and in larger amounts than local finance streams such as tourism-related fees.

In our review of conservation trust funds (CTFs) last year, for example, we documented an increasing number of CTFs incorporating marine and coastal areas into their grant portfolios over the last decade. There have also been several CTFs and partnerships established with a specific focus on MPAs or marine conservation – e.g., PACIFICO, The MedFund, the Blue Action Fund. [Editor’s note: Conservation trust funds are independent institutions that mobilize resources from diverse sources – including international donors, national governments, and the private sector – and direct these resources primarily through grants, to multiple nature conservation programs and projects, through a wide variety of organizations.]

In addition, there are a number of pilot initiatives to mobilize funds to support MPAs. These include innovative financing mechanisms such as the blue bond in Seychelles, the development of the Global Fund for Coral Reefs, and a number of blue carbon projects worldwide. There are two blue carbon projects in MPAs that are already selling their carbon credits.

We have also seen growing interest among development agencies in aligning the creation and management of MPAs with the development of a sustainable Blue Economy. In coming years, we would expect that the latter will offer increased funding opportunities for MPAs in collaboration with the private sector, although for now it is still in early development.

MPA News: The concept of CTFs is particularly attractive – providing a sustainable stream of funding over the long term.

Guzmán and Luján: Yes. Currently 45% of the 108 existing CTFs in the world have provided funding for MPA management, and around 26% of them have funded the creation of new MPAs.

However, CTFs will not represent the only or best financing solution in all situations. With few exceptions, CTFs still need to be part of a mix of financing mechanisms to fully finance protected areas and other conservation programs.

Bear in mind that setting up a CTF is a costly and time-intensive exercise. The entities involved weigh the costs and benefits of establishing a CTF, as compared to alternative financing models. The conditions for a CTF to be successful and mobilize sufficient funds will be greatly context-specific. Key enabling factors may include a beneficial legal environment, the willingness of donors to set up a CTF with a specific focus, a sufficiently skilled and knowledgeable board of directors, and sufficient budget to cover operational costs and build institutional effectiveness.

Then the money for the CTF needs to be raised. To attract donors, CTFs need to meet high institutional standards and develop innovative strategies to generate additional funds. It often takes several years for CTFs to progress from early design and fundraising to initial grant-making.

MPA News: The global financial sector is good at generating money. But the business of finance can seem mysterious and intimidating to the MPA world. How can we encourage more communication between these sectors without expecting MPA managers to become financially fluent?

Guzmán and Luján: MPA practitioners can take advantage of good resources that are already out there.

Several organizations have done great work to bridge the financial and conservation sectors. These include the UN Development Programme; international NGOs like WWF and The Nature Conservancy; and platforms like the Conservation Finance Alliance. These institutions are providing help to the conservation community in the form of guides, reports, assessments, manuals, and scorecards, among other tools. They’re also building knowledge-creating events and discussion groups.

In addition, there are a number of regional MPA learning exchange and capacity-building networks (like MPAConnect, MEDPAN, and PIMPAC) that provide important resources for their priority MPA sites. These networks help MPAs build sustainable finance capacities through a variety of approaches – from pilot projects, to the development of guidance materials, to the coordination of peer-to-peer exchanges. The organizations that coordinate these platforms have in many cases also become key facilitators and intermediaries between MPAs and potential donors or partners.

CTFs are another type of organization that speaks both the conservation and finance languages. Therefore they can also act as a catalyzer of partnerships that help fund MPAs. [Editor’s note: For a full list of CTFs that are operating or in development, click here and scroll to pages 185-190.]

At Wolfs Company, where we work, we have facilitated projects to build financial capacities and design sustainable finance strategies for more than 25 MPAs in the Wider Caribbean and Latin America. (For this work, we have developed an MPA finance toolkit that includes our Eco2Fin tool.) In working with MPAs, we have focused on the importance of understanding and communicating MPA management as ‘the provision of a service to a wide range of beneficiaries,’ including the private sector. That service has value, and that’s where the conversation on financing begins.

For more information:

Amílcar Guzmán Valladares and Viviana Luján Gallegos. Wolfs Company. Email: amilcar.guzman [at] wolfscompany.com and viviana.lujan [at] wolfscompany.com


Dos Mares, an international initiative, promotes MPA sustainability in Central America by disseminating marine science knowledge and conservation tools, and by fostering green business opportunities. The initiative now aims to build a portfolio of community-aligned projects in regional MPAs, and then attract support for those projects from donor institutions, NGOs, banks, entrepreneurs, and investors.

Dos Mares has produced a paper, Creating VALUE in Protected Areas of Central America, describing how to generate MPA projects in the region – refocusing traditional management programs to take surrounding communities into account and attract investment or donor attention. An explanatory video in Spanish is available, as well as a preliminary Projects Processing Guide.

“Much of Central American society does not assign value to protected areas,” says Carlos Espinosa, founder and director of Dos Mares. “Given the region’s degraded socio-economic environment – where the goal is often just to survive, amid misery and crime – local communities simply don’t perceive the protected areas’ services.” This leads to poaching and environmental loss.

The ecosystem services provided by protected areas must be made more apparent, says Espinosa. Management programs that align MPA activities with the needs of their local communities – such as by conducting pertinent research, or ensuring public safety, or providing entrepreneurial opportunities – can do that.

Dos Mares hopes that by guiding regional MPAs to plan rigorous projects, it can build a portfolio that actively attracts a broad array of financing for the region’s MPAs. And by serving MPAs and communities together, it can create sustainable conservation in the process.

For more information:

Carlos Espinosa, Dos Mares. Email: cespinosa [at] dosmares.org


The concept of MPA governance refers to the mix of approaches used at each MPA to steer user behavior. This steering is done through some combination of state control (‘top-down’), community-based approaches (‘bottom-up’), and market forces. By grouping these, an MPA can build regulations that are perceived as effective and equitable by the communities they impact.

An example would be an MPA that is gazetted in national law (top-down), involves local stakeholders in planning (bottom-up), and fosters development of alternative livelihoods that are compatible with the site’s goals (market forces).

Peter Jones of University College London has researched MPA governance for the past decade. MPA News last interviewed him on his work in 2014. Recently he published 28 case studies on MPA governance, bringing his project’s total to 51 cases on specific sites worldwide. His new publication also breaks down the full range of incentives that an MPA can use to steer behavior – from payments for ecosystem services, to assessing penalties for rule-breaking, to building on local customs, and many more. There are dozens of potential incentives in all.

MPA News asked Jones for his thoughts on his latest research, and why managers should pay attention to governance. His ideas are below:

On why it’s important for MPA managers to consider the governance of their sites:

“Human behavior – fishing, tourism, coastal development, etc. – is what leads to impacts that can undermine an MPA’s effectiveness. So it is important for MPA managers to focus on governance as the way to modify that behavior through an appropriate combination of incentives. Remember: management is focused on people in the social system, not the ecological system.

“It is also crucial to ensure that local customs and traditional ways of life are conserved, that the participation of local people is provided for, and that the costs and benefits of conservation are fairly shared. In other words, the MPA is equitable. Equitable management is a key element in Aichi Target 11 for MPAs under the Convention on Biological Diversity. Our research is focused on promoting MPAs that are both effective and equitable, with governance being the essential means of achieving both.”

On why diversity is the key to governance:

“The main aim of our MPA governance research has been to test the hypothesis that diversity is the key to resilience – not only for species in ecosystems, but for incentives in governance systems. The hypothesis has proven true. Our growing number of case studies has enabled us to provide practical guidance for MPA managers and policymakers on how to combine a diversity of governance incentives to promote effectiveness and equity.”

On the main misconception regarding MPA governance:

“The main misconception about MPA governance is still that ‘bottom-up is best,’ and that the state should not interfere. The state often plays a very important role in providing for legal incentives, and can also be a promoter and approver of potentially conflicting development and activities. Legal incentives and some state oversight are needed not only to promote effectiveness – through legal incentives such as enforcement capacity and penalties for deterrence – but also to ensure that inequalities that may exist at the community level do not lead to unfair decisions.

“Sometimes you similarly hear that ‘market approaches are best.’ We need to move beyond this thinking and broaden our focus to encompass a diversity of functionally integrated incentives. We need to recognize that diversity is the key to resilience, through a combination of governance approaches.”

For more information:

Peter Jones, University College London. Email: p.j.jones [at] ucl.ac.uk

On 7 July 2021, Peter Jones is presenting his latest research on MPA governance in a webinar co-hosted by OCTO and the NOAA National MPA Center. For details or to register, click here.


What will the MPA world be like when this pandemic is over? Back in May 2020, an essay in PARKS journal suggested the post-COVID future for protected areas could take a few directions. These ranged from bad (a global economic depression and persistent decline in conservation) to hopeful (a newly inspired commitment to the value of biodiversity protection). The essay’s authors said the latter was the only sustainable path forward, with increased investment and dramatic conservation actions.

A year later, MPA News revisits that essay to see if we’re closer to gauging what the future holds. We spoke with its lead author Marc Hockings of the University of Queensland, and one of his co-authors, Carol Phua of WWF. More recently, Phua led the writing of a separate article on the ‘new normal’ for MPAs after COVID, published this month in PARKS journal and available here. (That paper is part of a special issue of the journal on COVID-19 and protected and conserved areas.)

MPA News: In terms of the possible post-COVID scenarios you described a year ago – ranging from a decline in resource protection to a new societal relationship with nature – would you say we have enough evidence now for which one is most likely?

Marc Hockings: I think it is too early to be sure which way we will go, and likely the response will vary from country to country. However, we hope that the aggregate response creates pressure for the development of the new relationship with nature that is the basis of our hopeful scenario. What is clear is that, in the past year, leaders from across the world and from many different sectors have voiced the imperative of a new relationship with nature. To quote just a few examples:

Antonio Guterres, Director General, United Nations
“Making peace with nature is the defining task of the 21st century, it must be the top, top priority for everyone, everywhere.”

Kristalina Georgieva, Managing Director, International Monetary Fund
“The best memorial we can build for those who lost their lives in the pandemic is that greener, smarter, fairer world.”

World Economic Forum
The WEF’s new Future of Nature and Business report states there is “no future for business as usual,” and that “a fundamental transformation” is needed across the socioeconomic systems of food, land, and ocean use.

Furthermore the Leaders’ Pledge for Nature, signed by political leaders from 64 countries ahead of the United Nations Summit on Biodiversity in September 2020, committed to putting biodiversity, climate, and the environment at the heart of COVID-19 recovery strategies.

There are some promising signs that this is being translated into action. In its latest budget statement, the Canadian Government committed C$3.9 billion (US$3.1 billion) over the next 10 years for nature-based climate solutions, including ecosystem restoration and wildlife protection. This is combined with a commitment to protecting 25% of Canada’s land and ocean by 2025, and 30% by 2030. Meanwhile, New Zealand announced a NZ$1.26-billion (US$0.9-billion) COVID response budget measure focused on nature conservation.

That being said, national protected area agencies elsewhere point to the fact that budget constraints in coming years will be greater than ever, as governments continue to grapple with their COVID expenditures.

MPA News: Carol, your new essay in PARKS journal anticipates a post-COVID world for MPAs that’s different from before the pandemic. What do you see?

Carol Phua: A year ago, most people (including practitioners) were hopeful that things would get back to normal by 2021. Now we’re in 2021 and they haven’t. What is increasingly clear is that we are not going back to where we were before the COVID-19 pandemic hit. There is a ‘new normal’. A world without COVID may not exist for a long time.

To address the impact of COVID on marine protected and conserved areas (MPCAs), the new paper gathered a mixed group of MPCA practitioners and non-MPCA experts. The latter were people from the technology and finance sectors, to help address how advances in those fields could strengthen or otherwise impact MPCAs.

We collected 15 MPCA case studies from across the globe to see how COVID has impacted their current work. We discovered that there were several factors that dictated whether a site was particularly vulnerable or resilient to the pandemic. These included whether the site had sustainable financing, and how its management and communications were structured, among other factors. For each of these, our paper looked at opportunities for learning from the experience of the pandemic and ensuring more effective management in the future. Notably, we found an increasing role for emerging and applied technologies in MPCA management going forward.

It is important to recognize that MPCAs – which often have the dual goals of conservation and sustainable development – are a part of complex systems addressing economic, social, and ecological interactions. The drivers and threats to these systems can also be complex. I propose it would be useful for the MPCA community to start considering concepts from complexity theory – a field of research that examines the handling of uncertainty in management – to understand the behavior of these systems. This could help management agencies to adapt to a world where pandemics and other extreme shocks are predicted.

MPA News: Along that line, few MPAs foresaw a disruption like COVID-19 occurring, and fewer had a contingency plan in place for something like it. How can MPAs plan for unknowns like this?

Phua: First, there are major known disruptions that we are already experiencing. Climate change is the biggest of these and its impacts on coral reefs and ocean systems are already severe. At the MPCA level, there is much that managers can do to improve resilience to climate change – for their ecosystems and surrounding communities. This includes restoring healthy ecosystems to buy time as global emission reductions are put in place. Such initiatives may be the best preparation MPCAs can make to address surprises that nature has in store for us.

In terms of unexpected disruptions, we don’t know what the next one will be – it could be another virus. Few MPCA community members foresaw a disruption of the scale of COVID-19. We argue, however, that there is increasing awareness among members of the community that most MPCAs were vulnerable in one form or another – socially, ecologically, financially. There are very few MPCAs that have the stability not only to weather the storm of climate change, but also threats like unsustainable development, changes in political will, or a disruption like this pandemic.

In saying that, there are scenarios that MPCA managers can plan for. And in that planning, we should include experts from outside the MPCA field – like the financial and tech sectors, for example. These outside experts are aware of how COVID has already impacted their own industries. With that knowledge, they can inject relevant insights into MPCA management planning – like how to take advantage of new financial opportunities or tech-based tools to make an MPCA more resilient. This is valuable knowledge.

Taking a more comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach like that can help the MPCA field avoid blind spots that it might otherwise have. The following simple table illustrates the value of envisioning knowledge – and approaching planning – this way.

For more information:

Marc Hockings, University of Queensland. Email: marc [at] paconservation.com

Carol Phua, WWF. Email: cphua [at] wwf.org.au

These recent articles on MPA-related science and policy are each free to access.

Article: Dalton, K. et al. 2020. Marine-Related Learning Networks: Shifting the Paradigm Toward Collaborative Ocean Governance. Frontiers in Marine Science 7:595054.

Finding: Marine-related learning networks, including regional networks of MPA managers, play multifaceted roles within ocean governance systems by facilitating knowledge creation and exchange, and by building the capacity of individuals and institutions.

Article: Turnbull, J.W. et al. 2021. Evaluating the social and ecological effectiveness of partially protected marine areas. Conservation Biology, published 14 January 2021.

Finding: Conservation outcomes can be improved by upgrading partially protected areas to higher levels of protection, including conversion to fully protected areas.

Article: Pinsky, M.L. et al. 2020. Ocean planning for species on the move provides substantial benefits and requires few trade-offs. Science Advances 6:50.

Finding: Planning proactively for long-term ocean change, including with conservation areas that move over time to follow the redistribution of species, can be done in ways that provide substantial conservation benefits without substantial costs to maritime industries.

Article: Freedman, R.M. et al. 2020. Marine protected areas do not prevent marine heatwave-induced fish community structure changes in a temperate transition zone. Scientific Reports 10:21081.

Finding: MPAs alone cannot mitigate acute ecosystem change during heat waves, so resource managers will need to use a suite of conservation options to maintain ecosystem services as heat waves become more common.


More than 80 nations have now committed to 30x30 target for MPAs

As we reported in our last issue, the target of protecting 30% of national and global waters by 2030 – referred to as 30x30 – continues to gain momentum. By MPA News’s count, at least 83 nations have now committed to the 30x30 target, as of early March 2021. Most of the growth has been the result of coalitions of nations making the commitment together, as indicated below (there is overlap among these coalitions, with some nations joining more than one – MPA News has accounted for the overlap in its count):

  • As of early March 2021, 40 nations have now joined the Global Ocean Alliance, a group that favors the 30x30 target and supports its adoption under the Convention on Biological Diversity in 2021. That is up from 34 nations this past December. The group was started by the UK in 2019.
  • At the One Planet summit in Paris in January, a group of 56 nations – called the High Ambition Coalition for Nature and People – pledged to protect at least 30% of their land and oceans by 2030.
  • On 27 January, his seventh day in office, US President Joe Biden committed the US to the 30x30 target (scroll to Sec. 216 in the link).
  • In December, a group called the High Level Panel for a Sustainable Ocean Economy announced its intent to pursue the 30x30 target. The group comprises the heads of state of 14 countries.
  • Several additional governments have committed to protecting 30% of their waters as part of agreements with the Blue Prosperity Coalition, which supports those nations’ work to produce comprehensive marine spatial plans, including MPAs.

Blue Action Fund’s next call for proposals will focus on MPAs on Atlantic coast of Africa

The Blue Action Fund will soon launch its next open call for grant proposals, with the upcoming call focusing on Africa’s Atlantic coast, from Morocco to South Africa. The call seeks to finance NGO projects that work both to “establish, expand, or better manage MPAs” and “enhance livelihood conditions of coastal communities.”  Projects should seek contributions of EUR 1-3 million (or, in well-justified cases, up to EUR 4 million) and be completed within five years. The current expectation is that the Blue Action Fund will award grants from this call with a total volume of EUR 15 million or more.

The call will be launched at a virtual event, “Marine Conservation: An urgent task for international development cooperation”, on 15 April at 4:00-5:30 pm CET. Participants will include Peter Thomson (UN Secretary General’s Special Envoy for the Ocean), Dixon G. Waruinge (Nairobi Convention), John Tanzer (WWF), Jorge Moreira Da Silva (OECD), and Blue Action Fund’s supervisory board members. To receive information about the upcoming call for proposals, the event, and future opportunities, subscribe to Blue Action’s Funding Alerts.

US expands MPA to three times size to protect reefs and banks

In January the US expanded the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary, located in the Gulf of Mexico, from 145 km2 to 414 km2. The expanded boundary protects 14 more reefs and banks, in addition to the MPA’s original three banks. The newly protected features are now off-limits to bottom-contact fishing gear, ship anchoring, and petroleum exploration and production. The expansion marks the conclusion of several years of planning and public consultation on it, dating back to 2007. For more information, click here.

WWF report says 30% protection of Mediterranean would enable recovery of ecosystem and fish stocks

A new report from WWF makes the case that by protecting 30% of the Mediterranean in MPAs while allowing sustainable fishing elsewhere in the basin, the biomass of commercial fish stocks would surge and the marine ecosystem could largely recover from its overfished state. The report 30 by 30: Scenarios to recover biodiversity and recover fish stocks in the Mediterranean is available here. “Protecting key areas of the Mediterranean is an effective way to rebuild the most important fish stocks and stop the dramatic loss of species and habitats that is threatening our sea,” said Marina Gomei of WWF’s Mediterranean Marine Initiative, following the report’s release.

Report: Bottom trawling is widespread in UK offshore MPAs, and has climate impact

In January, the Marine Conservation Society released a report – Marine unProtected Areas – showing that bottom trawling is occurring in 98% of the UK’s offshore MPAs intended to protect seabed habitats. The report is available here. Among its findings:

  • All but one of the UK’s offshore MPAs designated to protect the seabed experienced bottom trawling and dredging between 2015 and 2018.
  • Bottom trawl and dredge vessels spent at least 89,894 hours fishing the seabed inside MPAs between 2015 and 2018.

In addition to bottom trawling’s physical impact on habitats, the report notes it also releases stored carbon from the sediment back into the water column. The Marine Conservation Society estimates the cost of mitigating the carbon released by seabed trawling in UK offshore MPAs to be roughly £980 million (US $1.4 billion) by 2040.

Jean-Luc Solandt and Frith Dunkley of Marine Conservation Society are presenting a webinar on the carbon-related impacts of bottom trawling in UK offshore MPAs on 16 March 2021. For details and to register, click here.

New guide available on MPA finance

BlueSeeds, an initiative to support improved conservation finance for MPAs, has released a practical guide on finance tools and strategies for MPA managers. Titled Financing Mechanisms: A guide for Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas, the document proposes a step-by-step approach to planning a financial strategy and setting up financing mechanisms adapted to each site’s needs. Although the guide targets a Mediterranean audience, its lessons are broadly applicable. (To download the document via the above link, make sure your browser allows pop-up windows.)

MPA-related readings from around the web

Countries fall short of U.N. pledge to protect 10% of the ocean by 2020 (Mongabay)

Blue carbon: how three Australian marine sites lock away 2bn tonnes of CO2 (The Guardian)

Illegal fishing: The great threat to Latin America’s marine sanctuaries (Mongabay)

Russia and NZ in 'knock out brawl' over fishing vessel in protected Antarctic waters (Stuff)

Hol Chan Marine Reserve: Preliminary audit shows millions in losses over three years (Breaking Belize News)

75% of Australia’s marine protected areas are given only ‘partial’ protection. Here’s why that’s a problem (The Conversation)

From the MPA News vault

Features and news items from yesteryear

Five years ago: February – March 2016

  • Inside Operation Phakisa, South Africa’s blue growth initiative that is fast-tracking a new MPA network
  • How MPAs can help address marine litter

Ten years ago: January-February 2011

  • Comparing Two Methods of Building MPA Networks: One Site at a Time vs. All at Once
  • Perspective | Autonomous Vessels Offer New Tool for MPA Research and Enforcement

Fifteen years ago: February 2006

  • Displaced Effort, License Buyouts, and the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park: Interview with Stephen Oxley
  • Perspective | Protecting the Least-Protected Places on Earth: The Open Oceans

Twenty years ago: February 2001

  • Case Study of a Spill Response: How Galápagos Managers Handled the 'Jessica' Spill
  • Is Your MPA Effective?: New Report Offers Ways to Assess Management

For these and all other issues of MPA News, go to https://mpanews.openchannels.org/mpanews/archives